Yes, say the authors of this article that surveys citation rates.
The stronger impact on citation levels comes from having an abstract, but tables of contents also contribute, and the two together generate citation rates 70% higher than articles without either.
Their theory is that abstracts and tables of contents reduce cognitive burdens on other researchers, which makes sense.
They don't appear to correct for article length, which might also be part of it, as my unscientific guess would be that long, 'battleship' articles of the type that might merit citations seem more likely to get the abstract and table of contents treatment. I also wonder whether some law reviews that generate high levels of citations are more likely to suggest/require both.