In light of the recently announced ban on the Russian team for the 2018 Winter Olympics, Scientific American has republished "The Scientific American Guide to Cheating in the Olympics."
Here is the gist:
It seems reasonable to ask: Have we made any progress against doping in sports?
Well, yes and…not really. One the one hand, WADA-accredited labs processed an astounding 186,073 blood and urine samples in 2014, the most recent year for which figures are available. Slightly less than 1 percent of those came back with an “adverse” or “atypical” finding, jargon for a positive or suspicious result. That translates into a large number of positive tests—but contrast that figure with the 29 percent of athletes at a major international meet who, when promised anonymity by researchers, admitted to using PEDs. Clearly, plenty of cheaters are getting away with it.
The sad truth is that athletes continue to test positive for many of the same things that they have been using historically: amphetamines and other stimulants, becoming popular in the 1950s; anabolic steroids in the ‘70s and ‘80s; EPO and human growth hormone from the ‘90s to the present. Anabolic agents remain the most widespread class by far, with over 1,400 positives in 2014 across all sports. That number includes some 76 athletes who returned positive tests for that 40-year-old standby, Oral Turinabol—which was taken off the market, but like many other doping drugs, is just a few clicks away on the Internet.
First published in August 2016, the article goes on to explain the major forms of doping, the various means of testing, and the known methods of evasion. It is well worth reading.